Verses: 1 Peter 3:18 – 19, 1 Peter 4:5 – 6.
“He Descended… ” – The Apostle’s Creed
‘Many Christians only know Him as the Lamb; very few have known Him as the Lion of Judah’.
Here are some historical Quotes regarding this Topic (from an actual well researched phD thesis on it by Marietjie du Toit – listed below from the earliest authorities of Doctrine and Language from the Early Church).
Note: I may NOT agree with the author’s deductions on ‘who’s right or wrong’ but I stick to the historical quotes found here.
1) Clement of Alexandria (150-215 CE) – Miscellaneous VI, Writes:
‘if then, the Lord descended to Hades for no other end but to preach the gospel as
He did descend; it was either to preach the gospel to all or to the Hebrews only. If
accordingly, to all, then all who believe shall be saved, although they may be of the
Gentiles, on making their profession there.’
The author remarks: Clement is here of the opinion that the salvation in Hades is not limited to the Old Testament righteous. It is open to anyone who believes and makes their profession.
2) Hippolytus (170-236 CE), Demonstration of Christ and Antichrist 26; Writes:
26 ‘… all power has been given to Christ … under the earth because He has been
counted among the dead, … triumphing over Death by his death.’
Comment: the phrase “under the earth” refers to ‘afterlife punishment regions’ as claimed too.
45 ‘He (Christ) also … became a forerunner in Hades when He was put to death by
Herod, that there too, He might intimate that the Saviour would descend to ransom
souls of the saints from the hand of death.’
The author comments: Hippolytus on the other hand, believed that only the saints would be saved from death. Here we also find the idea of a triumph over death, and the ransom of souls.
My comment: Hippolytus may NOT be limiting afterlife Salvation to Old Testament Saints only but rather highlighting it (in 45 above) as Hippolytus’ quote in 26 above also mentions “ALL power has been given to Christ” and NOT only toward the Old Testament Saints who have died.
Example of such a highlight toward afterlife Salvation in the context of “the dead among Israel first” [the Apocrypha Verse in a Fragment below was quoted by Justin (100 – 165) and Irenaeus (130 – 200)] too:
Apocryphon of Jeremiah (must be late first century to beginning second century CE)
‘The Lord God remembered His dead, the saints of Israel that have fallen asleep
in the dust of the tomb, and He went down unto them to proclaim the good news
of the salvation which He was bringing to them’ .
Here’s more of the Israel highlight – Precedence to them first:
Ignatius (35-107 CE), Concerning Magnetians IX, 217, Writes:
‘How shall we be able to live apart from Him? Seeing that even the prophets,
being His disciples, were expecting Him as their teacher through the Spirit. And
for this cause He whom they rightly awaited, when He came raised them from the
Why to them ‘first’?
Epistle of the Apostles 26-27 (Third quarter of the second century CE)
‘I willed to give their reward to those whom I had caused to set their hope upon it.
Therefore I descended, and spake with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and with your
fathers and Prophets, and proclaimed to them in Hell that rest in Heaven to which
they are to come. With my right hand I gave them the baptism of life, pardon and
remission of all evil, as I did for you.’
3) Origen, Homily VI in Exodus 6, Writes
‘Our Lord descended, not only to earth, but to the lower parts of the earth, and there
He found us devoured and sitting in the shadow of death. Hence He led us forth, not
to an earthly place to be again devoured, but He prepared for us a place in the
kingdom of Heaven.’
4) The Teachings of Silvanus in the fourth treatise of Codex VII of the Nag Hammadi
Library33 (End of third to beginning of fourth centuries CE), Quotes:
103, 23-104, 14
“… O soul, laggard, in what ignorance you exist! For who is your guide into the
darkness? How many likenesses did Christ take on because of you? Although He
was God, He was found among men as a man. He descended to the underworld.
He released the children of death. They were in travail, as the Scripture of God
has said. And He sealed up the heart of It. And He broke its strong bows
completely. And when all the powers had seen him, they fled so that He might
bring you, wretched one, up from the Abyss and might die for you as a ransom for
your sin. He saved you from the strong hand of the Underworld.”
110, 14-111, 4
“… Know who Christ is and acquire him as a friend, for this is the friend who is
faithful. He is also God and teacher. This one, being God, became man for your
sake. It is the one who broke the iron bars of the Underworld and the bronze bolts.
It is the one who attacked and cast down every haughty tyrant. It is He who
loosened from himself the chains of which He had taken hold. He brought up the
poor from the Abyss and the mourners from the Underworld. It is He who
humbled the haughty powers, He who put to shame the haughtiness through
humility, He who cast down the strong and the boaster through weakness, He who
in his contempt scorned that which is considered an honor so that humility for
God’s sake might be highly exalted; and He who has put on humanity.”
5) Irenaeus (160-230 CE), Prescriptions Against Heretics IV, 27:211
‘the Lord descended into the regions beneath the earth, preaching (evangelizantem) His advent there also and the remission of sins received by those who believe in Him’
6) Gospel of Peter 41-42
‘Hast thou preached to them that sleep? And the Cross answered: Yes’.
7) What happened at Hades when Lord Jesus Christ Descended into it?
Here are some possible incidents (but may NOT be limited to these):
(i) The Testament of Levi IV, 1 Writes:
‘The rocks are rent, and the sun quenched, and the water dried up, … the invisible
spirits mourn, and Hell is despoiled through the Passion of the Most High.’
(ii) The Testament of Dan V, 10-11 , Writes:
‘And there shall arise unto you from the tribe of Judah and of Levi the salvation
of the Lord; and He shall make war against Beliar and shall obtain the victory of
your fathers. And the captivity shall He take from Beliar, the souls of the saints,
and turn disobedient heart unto the Lord, and give to them that call upon him
(iii) The Testament of Benjamin IX, 5Writes:
‘…And He shall ascend from Hades and shall pass from earth to heaven’
(iv) The Ascension of Isaiah IX, 16-17 (first century CE) Writes:
‘And when He hath plundered the angel of death, He will ascend on the third day,
… And then many of the righteous will ascend with Him and He will send His
teachers all over the earthly globe and will ascend into heaven’
(v) The Ascension of Isaiah X, 8-14 Writes:
‘Go forth and descend through all the heavens; and after that thou shalt descend to
the firmament and the terrestrial world, even as far as to the angel in Sheol;
nevertheless to Haguel thou shalt not go. And thou shalt become like unto the
likeness of all who are in the five heavens, and to the form of the angels of the
firmament, and also of the angels who are in Sheol… Afterwards from the realms
of death thou shalt ascend to Thy place, and thou shalt not be transformed in each
(vi) Sibylline Oracles VIII, 310-312 (The ones we possess are a compilation of old and
new oracles worked up by Jewish and Christian authors who lived at various times
between 160 BCE and around the fifth century CE25) Writes:
‘He shall go into Hades to proclaim hope to all saints, the end of the ages and eternal day; and He will fulfil the law of death by sleeping for three days.’
8.) Afterlife Evangelism and Ministry Work
Shepherd of Hermas (1st or 2nd Century CE), Ninth Similitude IX, 16:5-7 Writes:
‘These, the apostles and teachers who preached the name of the Son of God, after
they had fallen asleep in the power and the faith of the Son of God, preached
also… to them that had fallen asleep before them, and themselves gave unto them
the seal of the preaching. Therefore, they went down with them into the water,
and came up again… So by their means they were quickened into life, and came
to the full knowledge of the name of the Son of God.’
The above may explain the Verses below regarding “Afterlife Evangelism and Ministry Work” by the apostles into the “spirit world” too and NOT only during their ‘earthly lives’ as popularly erred (the Greek word “World – Kosmos” in each Verse below is the same which refers to the space in which all creation exists as per definition in Romans 1:20):
“As You sent Me into the world, I also have sent them into the world.” – Lord Jesus Christ (John 17:18, NASB)
Truly, the GOSPEL applies a Healing and Restoration Word to ALL Creation eventually as Described in Verses prior too as it is Written:
“And He [Lord Jesus Christ] said to them, “Go into ALL the WORLD and Preach the GOSPEL to ALL CREATION.” – Lord Jesus Christ (Mark 16:15, NASB)
“For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse.” – apostle Paul (Romans 1:20, NASB)
Truly, this Verse is has been fulfilled in many ways:
“He was in the world, and the world was made through Him, and the world did not know Him.” – apostle John (John 1:10, NASB)
9) Afterlife Mystery regarding Baptism and more ancient wisdom from the apocrypha
The Odes of Solomon (2nd century CE)26
According to Daniélou (1964:244), The Odes introduces a final stage in this topic,
namely the linking of the theme of Christ’s victory over death in Hell and the liturgical
theme of baptism.
Ode XVII, 8-11 Writes:
‘I opened the doors that were closed and I brake in pieces the bars of iron; and the
iron became red-hot and melted before me; nothing any more appeared closed to
me, because I was the Door of everything. Then I went forth to all my prisoners to
Ode XXXI, 1ff Writes:
‘The abysses were dissolved before the Lord: and darkness was destroyed by His
appearance: error went astray and perished at His hand: and folly found no path to
walk in … He opened His mouth and spake grace and joy … His face was justified,
for thus His holy Father had given to Him. Come forth, ye that have been afflicted
and receive joy, and possess your souls by His grace, and take to you immortal
Ode XLII, 15-26 Writes:
‘Sheol saw me and was overcome; Death suffered me to return and many with me. I
was gall and bitterness to him, and I went down with him to the utmost of his
depths. I held an assembly of living men among the dead, and I spake to them with
holy lips; and those who had died ran towards me, they cried and said: Son of God
have pity on us, and deal with us according to thy loving kindness; bring us out
from the bonds of darkness, and open to us the door, that we may come forth to
thee. For we see that our death has not come nigh thee. As for me, I heard their voice, and I traced my name upon their heads; therefore they are free men and they
10) Non-canonized Writings?
Even the ‘generally’ non-canonical Writings may reveal some truths regarding this:
Gospel of Nicodemus (Elliott (1993:164-166) dates the work in its current form at
around the sixth century CE, but admits that Epiphanus (375 CE) refers to details
known to us now from the Acts), Writes:
4(20).1. ‘And while they were all so joyful, Satan the heir of darkness came and
said to Hades, ‘All devouring and insatiable one, listen to my words. There is one of
the race of the Jew, Jesus by name, who calls himself the Son of God. But He is a
man, and at our instigation the Jews crucified him. And now that He is dead, be
prepared that we may secure him here. For I know that He is a man, and I heard him
saying, “My soul is very sorrowful, even to death.” He caused me much trouble in
the world above while He lived among mortals…’
5(21).1. While Satan and Hades were speaking thus to one another, a loud voice
like thunder sounded, ‘Lift up your gates, O rulers, and be lifted up, O everlasting
doors, and the King of Glory shall come in.’ When Hades heard this, He said to
Satan, ‘Go out, if you can, and withstand him.’ So Satan went out. Then Hades said
to his demons, ‘Secure strongly and firmly the gates of brass and the bars of iron,
and hold my bolts, and stand upright and keep watch on everything. For if He
comes in, woe will seize us… 3. Again the voice sounded, ‘Lift up the gates.’ When
Hades heard the voice the second time, he answered as if he did not know it and
said, ‘Who is this King of Glory?’ The angels of the Lord said, ‘The Lord strong
and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle.’ And immediately at this answer the gates of
brass were broken into pieces and the bars of iron were crushed and all the dead
who were bound were loosed from their chains, and we with them. And the King of
Glory entered as a man, and all the dark places of Hades were illuminated….’
9(25).1. ‘Thus He went into paradise holding our forefather Adam by the hand, and
He handed him and all the righteous to Michael the archangel…’
Hosea 13:14 ‘I will ransom them from the power of Sheol (Hades); I will redeem them from Death…’
11) Early Church Leaders’ Interpretation of 1 Peter 3:18 – 19.
(i) CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA Wrote:
In his Miscellaneous (Stromata 6.6:38-39), 99 he clearly links 1 Pet 3:19 with Christ’s descent, while in the following discussion (6.6:42100) he states that pre-Christian pagans could only be converted through the preaching of Christ in the underworld. In his Outlines on 1 Peter (Adumbrationes)101, he cited 1 Peter 3:18-20 and interpreted it as a reference to the descent, although it is not clear to what degree he interpreted the text allegorically.
(ii) CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA Wrote:
In both his In John’s Gospel Book XI 16:16102 and Commentary on Luke 4:18, 103, he refers to 1 Peter 3:19. In John 16:16 he refers to 1 Peter 3:19 to show that Christ saved not only those on earth but also those who are already dead, and in Luke 4:18 to imply the conversion of the sinners in Hades.
(iii) AUGUSTINE Wrote:
Augustine formulated the view that Christ, in His pre-existent nature, preached to
Noah’s sinful contemporaries during their lifetime, particularly through the person of
Noah. He formulated this in an answer to Euodius who wrote him a letter asking how we can admit that Christ preached in the underworld, but that it was not possible for them to convert there?
To be honest, Augustine’s interpretation of a pre-existent Christ preaching during the Days of Noah clearly CONTRADICTS 1 Peter 3:18 which states first that CHRIST DIED and then in HIS SPIRIT went to PREACH the Gospel to the “spirits in prison” (which proves irrefutably that this happened after His Incarnation in the FLESH and NOT in His Pre-existence). Isn’t it obvious?
These spirits being in prison itself indicates that this is NOT Noah and the Saved ones who would’ be in the ‘afterlife regions of comfort and not in an afterlife prison of punishment’ such as Abraham’s bosom where Lazarus and Abraham was. Can you see the absurdity in Augustine’s claim?
(iv) Other Earliest Orthodox Christian Interpretations
In the early Syriac traditions, we find the same interpretation of 1 Peter 3:19 as the Alexandrians had, and the doctrine of the descent was relatively popular here (cf.
Kelly 1960:380). Dalton (1989:31) gives a translation of the Peshitta version of the text.
1 Peter 3:19 ‘And He preached to the souls who were shut up in Sheol, who had once
been disobedient in the days of Noah’.
Please note the Bible Word in 1 Peter 3:19 is NOT “soul” but “spirit” (as these two terms are different in Koine Greek as even 1 Thessalonians 5:23 mentions all three “body”, “soul” and “spirit” though there may be dependency of some sort amongst these).
Some may be existent in Hell in their “soul” (if it’s not fully destroyed yet as per Matthew 10:28) while others may only be existent there with their “spirit only” if their “soul is destroyed already in the spiritual fires of Hell”. The “soul” contains the “spirit” while the “spirit” may not contain the “soul” (often tied up to emotions etc.) if it has been destroyed due to ‘sin being attached to it prior’.
So, when Christ Descended into the “lower (punishment) regions of Sheol or Hades, called HELL”, in His SPIRIT after BODILY DEATH in HIS FLESH (1 Peter 3:18), it is obvious that “His Soul” is undamaged since He has NEVER SINNED. So, quoting Christ went there with His Spirit is NOT wrong but explains the ‘spiritual world’ or ‘afterlife context’ (emphasized in these Verses).
Here’s an example of a literal translation of this Verse:
“because also Christ once for sin did suffer — righteous for unrighteous — that He might lead us to God, having been put to death indeed, in the Flesh, and having been made Alive in the Spirit, in which also to the spirits in prison having gone he did preach, who sometime disbelieved, when once the long-suffering of God did wait, in days of Noah — an ark being preparing — in which few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water; ” – apostle Peter (1 Peter 3:18 – 20, YLT)
“who shall give an account to Him who is ready to judge living and dead, for for this also to dead men was good news proclaimed, that they may be judged, indeed, according to men in the flesh, and may live according to God in the spirit.” – apostle Peter (1 Peter 4:5 – 6, YLT)
“Therefore Christ having suffered in the flesh, you also arm yourselves with the same mind, because the one having suffered in the flesh is done with sin, so as to live the remaining time in the flesh no longer to men’s desires, but to the will of God. For the time past is sufficient to have carried out the desire of the Gentiles, having walked in sensuality, lusts, drunkenness, orgies, carousing, and abominable idolatries.
With respect to this, they think it strange of you not running with them into the same overflow of debauchery, speaking evil of you, who will give account to Him who is ready to judge the living and the dead. For to this end the gospel was proclaimed even to the dead, so that they might be judged indeed according to men in the flesh, but they might live in the spirit according to God.” – apostle Peter (1 Peter 4:1 – 6, Berean Literal Bible – BLB)
12) The Popular Eternal HellView
They claim all the church leaders above were wrong except probably Augustine and even claim that the spirits in 1 Peter 3:18 – 20 refers to “fallen angels” while 1 Peter 4:5 – 6 refers to “the dead” who heard the Gospel before they died.
The absurdity in their claim above is obvious against even what is written in these Quoted Verses.
Fact is, the ancient church leaders quoted here are right in many ways and for example the 1 Peter 3:18 – 20 refers to the “spirits in prison from the Days of Noah” (human spirits) and NOT fallen angels and it’s Written in the Context of “that He might lead us to God” (please note this phrase carefully in Verses above, 1 Peter 3:18 – 20).
Furthermore, apostle Peter is talking about HUMAN BEINGS ONLY in both 1 Peter 3:18 – 20 and 1 Peter 4:5 – 6 and NOT FALLEN ANGELS at all in the Verses Surrounding it too. How can suddenly in the middle of it some Christians claim that it refers to the ‘spirits of fallen angels’ (which is NOT the Topic at all in the surrounding Verses?)
Regarding “which dead” is referred to in 1 Peter 4:5 – 6, please consider the simple non-twisting, non-adding close to the literal translation of this Verse explanation regarding “context” as follows:
The dead in Peter 4:6 is NOT spiritually dead but “the dead” (as contrasted against the living in 1 Peter 4:5). The spiritually dead part is explained below:
1 Peter 4:1 – 3 —> context is referring to “you” the ‘believer’ to be NOT spiritually dead in sins.
1 Peter 4:4 —> context mentions regarding those unbelievers who are surprised that you (‘believers’) do NOT do their sins anymore.
1 Peter 4:5 —> Apostle Peter mentions that the unbelievers who malign you have to give an account (be answerable in Judgment) toward Christ Who is ready to Judge the LIVING and the DEAD (referring to the Great White Throne of Judgment, Revelation 20:11 – 15, Matthew 25:31).
1 Peter 4:6 —> Apostle Peter further explains regarding the DEAD only that though these may be Judged in the Flesh (the flesh here = resurrected natural-perishable body of some type, 1 Corinthians 15:44 for Judgment, hence the wicked are still called the dead before His Throne in Revelation 20:11 – 15) —> they may “live in the spirit” (their spirit being Saved, 1 Corinthians 5:5) to God eventually post-Judgment as 1 Peter 4:6 concludes.
In this way, the Wicked DIE TWICE (the first time in their earthly life prior and the second time in the Lake of Fire with their perishable body resurrected for Judgment, John 5:29, 1 Corinthians 15:44) —> where after this SECOND DEATH (where at most body + soul is destroyed, as the fire of Gehenna in Hades is mingled in the Lake of Fire now, Revelation 20:14 with Matthew 10:28, 1 Peter 4:5) —> “their spirit may be saved” in the Day of Lord Jesus thereafter (1 Corinthians 5:5), i.e. “live to God in spirit” (1 Peter 4:6) —> as the Hope of the Resurrection toward the WICKED too is mentioned in Acts 24:15 to be RAISED Imperishable without sin thereafter to be “made ALIVE in CHRIST” (1 Corinthians 15:22) in the Resurrection of the Dead (1 Corinthians 15:21).
Please note carefully that 1 Peter 4:6 mentions that “though they may be JUDGED in the FLESH” (where the FLESH refers to being JUDGED in a Ressurected Body, John 5:29) and Christ’s Great White Throne Judgment is ONLY later at the end of this age (not now, as referred to in 1 Peter 4:5 too first), so I see that apostle Peter must be describing the Revelation 20:11 – 15’s Final Judgment and its Outcome that the “spirit will live to God” (understood to be post Lake of Fire Judgment – after the next age – causing the Second Death of the Wicked first where both his perishable body + soul containing his sins may be destroyed permanently first – reconciliation next where that spirit may be made ALIVE by CHRIST in an imperishable-1 Corinthians 15:50, 1 Corinthians 15:42 sinless spiritual body thereafter-1 Corinthians 15:44 as 1 Corinthians 15:21 – 22 promises this HOPE toward the wicked too-Acts 24:15, 1 Corinthians 15:49).
“While the devil thought to kill One [Christ], he is deprived of all those cast out of hades, and he [the devil] sitting by the gates, sees all fettered beings led forth by the courage of the Saviour”.– St. Athanasius of Alexandria (the ‘black dwarf’ who defended the Trinity Doctrine against Arianism, c. 296–298 – 2 May 373)
“Our Lord descends, and was shut up in the eternal (aionion, more correctly, age-during) bars, in order that He might set free all who had been shut up… The Lord descended to the place of punishment and torment, in which was the rich man, in order to liberate the prisoners.” – St. Jerome of the Vulgate (c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420)
“In the liberation of all no one remains a captive! At the time of the Lord’s passion the devil alone was injured by losing all the of the captives he was keeping.” –St. Didymus the blind, (370 AD)
“While the devil imagined that he got a hold of Christ, he really lost all of those he was keeping.” – St. Chrysostom, (398 AD)
“Mankind, being reclaimed from their sins, are to be subjected to Christ in the fullness of the dispensation instituted for the salvation of all.” -– St. Didymus the Blind
“The Son “breaking in pieces” His enemies is for the sake of remolding them, as a potter his own work; as Jeremiah 18;6 says: i.e., to restore them once again to their former state.” — Eusebius of Caesarea (265 to 340 A.D). Bishop of Caesarea (‘father’ of Church History)
“He, indeed, saves all; but some [He saves], converting them by punishments; others, however, who follow voluntarily [He saves] with dignity of honour; so “that every knee should bow to Him, of things in heaven, and things on earth, and things under the earth;” Philippians 2:10 that is, angels, men, and souls that before His advent have departed from this temporal life.” – St. Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 – c. 215)
P/S: Other Closely Related Quotes from Various leaders of the Early Church
“For the wicked there are punishments, not perpetual, however, lest the immortality prepared for them should be a disadvantage, but they are to be purified for a brief period according to the amount of malice in their works. They shall therefore suffer punishment for a short space, but immortal blessedness having no end awaits them…the penalties to be inflicted for their many and grave sins are very far surpassed by the magnitude of the mercy to be showed to them.” –Diodore of Tarsus, 320-394 A.D.
“And God showed great kindness to man, in this, that He did not suffer him to continue being in sin forever; but as it were, by a kind of banishement, cast him out of paradise in order that, having punishment expiated within an appointed time, and having been disciplined, he should afterwards be recalled…just as a vessel, when one being fashioned it has some flaw, is remoulded or remade that it may become new and entire; so also it happens to man by death. For he is broken up by force, that in the resurrection he may be found whole; I mean spotless, righteous and immortal.” –Theophilus of Antioch (168 A.D.)
“Wherefore also he drove him out of paradise and removed him far from the tree of life, not because He envied him the tree of life, as some dare assert, but because He pitied him and desired that he should not be immortal and the evil interminable and irremediable.” St.Iraneaus of Lyons – the first Greek father & author of the infamous treatise, “Against Heresies”.(182 A.D.)
“These, if they will, may go Christ’s way, but if not let them go their way. In another place perhaps they shall be baptized with fire, that last baptism, which is not only painful, but enduring also; which eats up, as if it were hay, all defiled matter, and consumes all vanity and vice. –Gregory of Nazianzeu, Bishop of Constantinople.” (330 to 390 A.D.) Oracles 39:19
“The wicked who have committed evil the whole period of their lives shall be punished till they learn that, by continuing in sin, they only continue in misery. And when, by this means, they shall have been brought to fear God, and to regard Him with good will, they shall obtain the enjoyment of His grace.”– Theodore of Mopsuestia (the ‘best’ theologian from the ancient Antiochian School), 350-428
“We can set no limits to the agency of the Redeemer to redeem, to rescue, to discipline in his work, and so will he continue to operate after this life.” –Clement of Alexandria (the teacher of Origen & a revered saint in the eastern orthodox churches). He is often referred to as the Second Greek father (talking about the ‘authority’ in Greek).
“Our Lord is the One who delivers man [all men], and who heals the inventor of evil himself. — Gregory of Nyssa (332-398 A.D.), leading theologian of the Eastern Church
Extended Reading for Edification, please consider:
1) Hell in Church History
2) Aionion Kolasin
3) Christian Universalist Quotes Compilation (from various historical scholars)
4) A Notable Vision of Hell agreeing to all these – Sadhu Sundar Singh
Example: Sadhu Sundar Singh’s Visions of Heaven and Hells (plural – refers to the many afterlife punishment regions) agrees to all this (for example: he mentioned that ‘hindu saints’ have accepted Him as Lord and Saviour in the afterlife – afterlife repentance, an example of sheepfold2 as claimed).
Please don’t forget that the infamous eternal hell preacher, brother DGS Dhinakaran wrote that he saw Sadhu Sundar Singh (the Christian Universalist) in heaven too. Can you see it?
Blessed be Lord Jesus Christ, the Unfathomable Greatest One, the Saviour of the World!
Maranatha, Even so come, Lord Jesus.
P/S 2: Lost Wisdom – Targum – the Second Death
To Quote, regarding the “second death” of the wicked:
In Targum Neofiti (Neof.) and the fragments (FTP and FTV), the “second death” is the death that the wicked die.
Targum Isaiah has three occurrences. The first is 22:14 where the Aramaic paraphrases the Hebrew as “This sin will not be forgiven you until you die the second death.”
Please note carefully that though both the words “Gehenna” and the “Second Death” do NOT appear in the Old Testament Verses as an “afterlife punishment region or concept (Hell in some way)” in a ‘direct’ manner, but surprisingly it turns out by New Testament usage that these two phrases or words are REAL as there are New Testament Verses mentioning both “directly”.
Source for the two Targum quotes & what is the Targum? Please visit the link below, thank-you:
P/S 3: Why does God Hide such Deep Truths?
For His Glory when Found and Revealed (as Verse in image, Proverbs 25:2 mentions).